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Larry Fox

Larry Fox

Larry Fox

Professor – Vet, Dairy
Office: ADBF 2043
Phone: 509-335-0786

DAIRY MANAGEMENT AND REDUCTION OF MASTITIS. Our research efforts are designed to examine new methods of control of contagious mastitis. These efforts are principally directed at control of Staphylococcus aureus and Mycoplasma sp. mastitis. Our focus is directed at the development and validation of strategies to control this disease through applied and basic research. Currently we are utilizing biotechnologies to “Fingerprint” S. aureus and Mycoplasma sp, to trace the pathogen from its reservoir to fomite to the host, the cow, for these two pathogen types. We also study the effectiveness of standard milking procedures to reduce mastitis and improve milk quality.

Specific Research Areas:

  • Control of S. aureus mastitis in cows through the vaccination.
  • Exotoxins in milk: affects on milk quality and mammary immunity.
  • Determination of reservoirs of Mycoplasma sp. that cause mastitis.


  1. Ayling, R.D., I. Lysnyansky, K. Sachse, L.K. Fox, M.J. Calcutt, and R.A. J. Nicholas.  2018.  Gap analysis of Mycoplsma bovis disease, diagnosis and control: An aid to identify future development requirements. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.65(Suppl1): 91-109.
  2. Lowe, J.L., L.K. Fox, B.D. Enger, A.Adams Progar, and J.M. Gay. 2018. Effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration on the cultivation of bovine Mycoplasma species. Journal of Dairy Science, 101:4660-4666..
  3. Alabdullah, H.A., L.K. Fox, J.M. Gay, and G.M. Barrington. 2018.  Interactive effects of dexamethasone and opsonized Mycoplasma bovis on bovine neutrophil function in vitro.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 196:18-21.
  4. Adkins P.R.F, John R Middleton; M.J. Calcutt, G. C. Stewart, and L. K Fox. 2017.  Species identification and stratin typing of Staphylococcus agnetis and Staphylococcus hyicus isolates from bovine milk by use of a novel multiplex PCR assay and Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis.  J. of Clinical Micro. 55:1778-1788.
  5. Adkins P.R.F, John R Middleton; Lawrence K Fox. 2016. Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Cases of Subclinical Bovine Mastitis in the United States.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 54: 1871-1876
  6. Nicholas, R.A.J., L.K. Fox, I. Lysnyansky. 2016.  Mycoplasma mastitis in cattle: to cull or not to cull.  The Vet. J. 216:142-147.
  7. Fox, L.K. 2016.  Removal of hair from the mammary gland: Recovery of bacteria from teat skin and milk.  Journal of Dairy Science. 99:1461-1464.
  8. Ahmadzadeh A., L.K. Fox, M.A, McGuire and K.G. Carnahan. 2015. Effect of Prostaglandin F2α on Growth of Mycoplasma bovis Associated with Bovine Mastitis. J Adv Dairy Res. 3:142. doi:10.4172/2329-888X.1000142.
  9. Alabdullah, H.A., L.K. Fox, J.M. Gay, G.M. Barrington, R.H. Mealey. 2015.  Effects of examethasone and Mycoplasma bovis on bovine neutrophil function in vitro.  Vet. Immunol. Immunpathol. 164:67-73.
  10. Enger, B. D., L. K. Fox, J. M. Gay, and K. A. Johnson. 2015. Reduction of teat skin mastitis pathogen loads: Differences between strains, dips, and contact times. J. Dairy Sci. 98:1354-1361.
  11. Middleton, J.R., A. Saeman, L.K. Fox, J. Lombard, J.S. Hogan, K. L Smith. 2014.  The national Mastitis Council: A global organization for mastitis control and milk quality, 50 years and beyond.  J. Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. DOI 10.1007/s10911-014-9328-6
  12. Calcutt, M.J., M. F. Foecking, and L.K. Fox. 2014.  Complete genome sequence of the bovine mastitis pathogen Mycoplasma colifornicum Strain ST-6T (ATCC 33461).  Genome Announcements 2(4): e00648-14.
  13. Stanton, A.L., David F. Kelton, Stephen J. LeBlanc, Jeanne Wormuth, Lawrence K. Fox, and Kenneth E. Leslie. 2013. Effects of tulathromycin on incidence of various diseases and growth of young heifers. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 243: 267-276.
  14. R.L. Proietto, L.S. Hinckley, L.K. Fox, and S.M. Andrew. 2013. Evaluation of a clay-based acidic bedding conditioner for dairy cattle bedding.  J. Dairy Sci. 96:1044-53.
  15. Harrison, E. M, G. K. Paterson, M.T. Holden, f.J. Morgan, A.R. Larsen, A. Petersen, S. Leroy, S. De Vliegher, V. Perreten, L.K. Fox, T.J. Lam, O.C. Sampimon, R.N. Zadoks, S. J. Peacock, J. Parkhill, and M.A. Holmes. 2013. A Staphyloccocus xylosus isolate with a new mecC allotype.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 57:1524-28.
  16. Punyapornwithaya, V.,  L. K. Fox, D. D. Hancock, J.M. Gay, and R. Alldredge. 2012.  Time to clearance of mycoplasma mastitis: The effect of management factors including milking time hygiene and preferential culling. Can. Vet. J. 53:1119:1122.
  17. De Vliegher, S., L.K. Fox, S. Piepers, S. McDougall, and H.W. Barkema.  2012.  Invited review: Mastitis in dairy heifers: nature of the disease, potential impact, prevention, and control. J. Dairy Sci. 95:1025-1040.
  18. Quirk, T., L.K. Fox, D.D. Hancock, J. Capper, J. Wenz, and J. Park. 2012.  Intramammary infections and teat canal colonization with coagulase-negative staphylococci after postmilking teat disinfection: Species-specific responses.  Journal of Dairy Sci. 95:1906-1912.
  19. Park, Y.K., Fox, L.K., D.D. Hancock, W. McMahan, and Y.H. Park. 2012.  Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of mastitis pathogens from dairy herds transitioning to organic management.  J. Vet. Sci. 13:103-105.
  20. Boonyayatra, S., L.K. Fox, T.E. Besser, A. Sawant, J.M. Gay and Z. Ravivi. 2012. A PCR assay and PCR-Restriction fragment length polymorphism combination identifying the 3 primary Mycoplasma species causing mastitis. J. Dairy Sci.  95:196-205.
  21. Boonyayatra, S., L.K Fox, J.M Gay, A. Sawant and T.E. Besser. 2012.  Discrimination between Mycoplasma and Acholesplasma species of bovine origin using digitonin disc diffusion assay, nisin disc diffusion assay and conventional polymerase chain reaction..  J. Vet. Diag. Invest. 24:7-13
  22. Madhusoodanan J., K.S. Seo, B. Remortel,  J.Y. Park, S.Y. Hwang, L.K. Fox LK, Y.H. Park, C.F. Deobald, D. Wang  S. Liu, S.C. Daugherty, A.L. Gill, G.A.Bohach,and S.R. Gill, 2011.  An enterotoxin-bearing pathogenicity island in Staphlococcus epidermidis.  J. bacteriology. 193:1854-62.
  23. Punyaportwithaya, V., L.K. Fox, D. D. Hancock, J.M. Gay, J.R. Wenz, J. R. Alldredge.  2011.  Incidence and transmission of Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in Holstein dairy cows in a hospital pen: A case study.  Prev. Vet. Med. 98:74-78.
  24. Hunt, K.M., Hunt, K.M., J. A. Foster, L.J. Forney, U.M.E. Shute, D.L. Beck, Z. Abdo, L,K. Fox, J.E. Williams, M.K. McGuire, M.A. McGuire.  2011. Characterization of the Diversity and Temporal Stability of Bacterial Communities inHuman Milk.  PLoS ONE 6(6): e21313. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021313
  25. Wenz, J.R., L.K. Fox, F.J. Muller, M. Rinaldi, R. Zeng, and D. D. Bannerman. 2010. Factors associated with concentrations of select cytokine and acute phase proteins in dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis.  J. Dairy Sci. 93:2458-2470.
  26. Adhikari, B., T.E. Besser, J.M. Gay, L.K. Fox, D. D. Hancock, and M. A. Davis. 2010.  Multilocus variable-number-tandem-repeat analysis and plasmid profiling to study the occurrence of blacmy-2 within a pulsed field gel electrophoresis defined cade of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.  Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 76:69-74.
  27. Park, J.Y., L.K. Fox, K.S. Seo,  M. A. McGuire, Y.H. Park, F.R. Rurangirwa, W.M. Sischo, G. A. Bohach. 2010.  Detection of classical and newly described staphylococcal superantigen genes in coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine intramammary infections.  Vet. Micro. 147:149-154.
  28. Park, J.Y., L.K. Fox, K.S. Seo,  M. A. McGuire, Y.H. Park, F.R. Rurangirwa, W.M. Sischo, G. A. Bohach. 2010.  Comparison of phenotypic and genotypic methods for the species identification of coagulase-negative staphyloccal isolates from bovine intramammary infections. Vet. Micro. 147:142-148.
  29. Boonyayatra, S., LK. Fox, T.E. Besser, A. Sawant, and J.M. Gay. 2010.  Effects of storage methods on the recovery of Mycoplasma species from milk samples.  Vet. Micro. 144:210-213.
  30. Punyapornwithaya, V., L.K. Fox, J.M. Gay, D.D. Hancock, and J.R. Alldredge. 2010.  Association between an outbreak strain causing mycoplasma bovis mastitis and its asymptomatic carriage in the herd: A case study from Idaho, USA.  Prev. Vet. Med. 93:66-70.
  31. Punyapornwithaya, V., L.K. Fox, J.M. Gay, D.D. Hancock, and J.R. Alldredge. 2009.  The effect of centrifugation and resuspension on the recovery of Myscoplasma species from milk. J. Dairy. Sci. 92:4444-4447.
  32. Adhikari B., Besser T.E., Gay J.M., Fox L.K., Davis M.A., Cobbold R.N., Berge A.C., Hancock D.D.2009. Introduction of new multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica strains into commercial dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci.92:4229-4238.
  33. Adhikari B, Besser T.E., Gay J.M., Fox L.K., Davis M.A., Cobbold R.N., Berge A.C.,McClanahan R, Hancock D.D.2009.The role of animal movement, including off-farm rearing of heifers, in the interherd transmission of multidrug-resistant Salmonell. J. Dairy. Sci. 92:4218-4228.
  34. Fox, L.K. 2009. Prevalence, incidence and risk factors of heifer mastitis. Vet. Micro. 134:82-88.
  35. Andrew, S.M., K.M. Moyes, A.A. Borm, L.K. Fox, K.E. Leslie, J.S. Hogan, S.P. Oliver, Y.H. Schukken, W.E. Owens, and C. Norman. 2009.  Factors associated with the risk of antibiotic residues and intramammary pathogen presence in milk fro heifers administered prepartum intramammary antibiotic therapy. Vet. Micro. 134:150-6.
  36. Seo, K.S., J.Y. Park, W.C. Davis, L.K. Fox, M.A. McGuire, Y.H. Park, G.A. Bohach. 2009. Superantigen-mediated differentiation of bovine monocytes into dendritic cells. J. Leukoc. Bio. 85:606-16
  37. Fox, L.K., F.J. Muller, M.L. Wedam, C.S. Schneider, and M.K. Biddle. 2008. Clinical Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in prepubertal heifers on 2 dairy herds.  Can. Vet. J. 49:1110-1112.
  38. Church, G.T., L.K. Fox, C.T. Gaskins, D. D. Hancock, and J.M. Gay. 2008.  The effect of a shortened dry period on intramammary infections during the subsequent lactation.  J. Dairy Sci. 91: 4219:4225.
  39. Keun Seok Seo, Sang Un Lee, Yong Ho Park, W. C. Davis, Lawrence K. Fox, and Gregory A. Bohach.  2007. Long-Term Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C1 Exposure Induces Soluble Factor-Mediated Immunosuppression by Bovine CD4 and CD8 T Cells. Infection and Immunity, 75:260–269.
  40. Park YH, SU Lee, WA Ferens, S Samuels, WC Davis, LK Fox, JS Ahn, KS Seo, BS Chang, SY Hwang, and GA Bohach (2006) Unique features of bovine lymphocytes exposed to a staphylococcal superantigen. Journal of Veterinary Science 7:233-239
  41. Fox, L. K., C. Gradle, and A. Dee. 2006.  Disinfectant containing a complex of skin conditioners. J. Dairy Sci. 89:2539-2541.
  42. Borm, A. A., L. K. Fox, K. E. Leslie, J. S. Hogan, S. M. Andrew, K. M. Moyes, S. P. Oliver, Y. H. Schukken, D. D. Hancock, C. T. Gaskins, W.E. Owens, and C. Norman.  2006.  Effects of prepartum intramammary antibiotic therapy on udder health.  J. Dairy Sc,i. 89:2090-2098.
  43. Fox, L.K., R.N. Zadoks and C.T. Gaskins. 2005. Biofilm production by Staphylococcus aureus associated with intramammary infection.Vet Micro. 107: 295-299.
  44. Griffin,  K.B. J. J. Michal, L. K. Fox, C. T. Gaskins, and Z. Jiang. 2005.  Fine mapping of the bovine chromosome 22q24 region that harbours antimicrobial genes and a QTL for somatic cell score.  Animal Genetics. 36:448-451
  45. Smith, E. M., L.E. Green, G.F. Medley, H.E. Bird, L. K. Fox, Y. H. Schukken, J. V. Kruze,  A. J. Bradley, R. N. Zadoks, and C. G. Dowson.   2005.   Multilocus sequence typing of intercontineatal bovine staphylococcus aureus isolates.  J. Clin. Micro 43: 4737-4743.
  46. Chang, S. B., G. A. Bohach, S.U. Lee, W.C. Davis, L.K.  Fox, W.A. Ferens, K.S. Seo, H. C. Koo, M.H Kwon, Y.H. Park.  2005.  Immunosuppression by T regulatory celss in cows infected with Staphylococcal superantigen.  J. Veterinary Science.  6:247-250
  47. Fox, L.K., J.H. Kirk, and A. Britten. 2005.  Mycoplasma mastitis: A review of transmission and control.  J. Vet. Med. 52:153-160.
  48. Biddle, M. K., L. K. Fox, M. A. Evans, and C. C. Gay. 2005.  Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of Mycoplasma isolates from various body sites in dairy cattle with Mycoplasma mastitis. JAVMA 227:445-459.
  49. Zecconi, A., R. Piccinini, and L.K. Fox. 2004.  Epidemiologic study of non-contagious intramammary infections in nine commercial dairy herds following a Staphylococcus aureus control program.  J. Vet Med. B 51:333-336
  50. Biddle, M.K.,  L. K. Fox, D. D. Hancock, C. T. Gaskins, and M. A. Evans Effects of Storage Time and Thawing Methods on the Recovery of Mycoplasma Species in Milk Samples from Cows with Intramammary Infections
  51. J. Dairy Sci. 2004 87: 933-936.
  52. Zecconi, A., R. Piccinini, and L. K. Fox. 2003.  Epidemiologic study of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus during a control program in nine commercial dairy herds.  JAVMA. 223: 684-688.
  53. Fox, L.K., L.Y. Oura, and C.R. Ames. 2003. Teat Skin pH.  J. Dairy Sci.  86:3951:3952
  54. Silk, A.S., L. K. Fox, and D. D. Hancock. 2003.  Removal of hair surrounding the teat and associated bacterial counts on teat skin surface, in milk, and intramammary infections.  J. Vet. Med. B. 50:1-4.
  55. Joo, Y.S., J. S. Moon, L.K. Fox, G.H. Suh, N. H. Kwon, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Park.  2003. Comparison of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP-1) expression between cows with high and low milk somatic cells counts. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1830-1836.
  56. Biddle, Mary K , Larry K. Fox, and Dale D. Hancock  2003.  Patterns of mycoplasma shedding in the milk of dairy cows with intramammary mycoplasma infection. JAVMA 223:1163-1166
  57. Fox, L.K., G. A. Bohach, S. U. Lee, K.T. Park, and Y.H. Park.  2003.  Mastitis: Effect on milk quality, causative agents and control.  Kor. J. Vet. Publ Health.  27:69-76.
  58. Lee, S. U., Y. H. Park, W. C. Davis, L. K. Fox, and G. A. Bohach. 2003.  The properties of human and bovine CD8+CD26+ T Cells induced by a microbial superantigen.  Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 524:1-4.
  59. Fox, LK, Hancock, DD, Mickelson, A, and A. Britten. 2003. Bulk tank milk analysis:Factors associated with appearance of Mycoplasma sp in milk. J. Vet. Med B 50:235-240
  60. Middleton JR, Hebert VR, Fox LK, Tomaszewska E, Lakritz J.  2003.  Elimination kinetics of chlorhexidine in milk following intramammary infusion to stop lactation in mastitic mammary gland quarters of cows.  J Am Vet Med Assoc.  222(12): 1746-1749
  61. Hebert V.R., J.R. Middleton, E. Tomaszewska, and L.K. Fox. 2003.  Methodology for quantifying residues of chlorhexidine in raw dairy milk. J. Ag. and Food Chem. 51:567-570.